Help us get to over 4,000 biographies in 2018.

If you know of a past magician not listed in MagicPedia, start a New Biography for them or Email us your suggestion.

Muscle Reading

From Magicpedia, the free online encyclopedia for magicians by magicians.
Revision as of 10:29, 24 September 2008 by Jpecore (Talk | contribs)

Jump to: navigation, search
Wikipedia-logo.png This page incorporated content from Muscle Reading,

a page hosted on Wikipedia. Please consult the history of the original page to see a list of its authors. Therefor, this article is also available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License

Muscle Reading is the art by which magicians perform an apparent ESP demonstrations by "reading" the involuntary movements and reactions of a spectator. The demonstration usually involves locating a hidden object (e.g. car keys, a check). The spectator, who knows where the object is, must concentrate in able for the demonstration to be a success.

There are two types of muscle reading. "Contact" muscle reading in which the magician stays in contact with the spectator by grasping his wrist or holding on object like a handkerchief between them. “Noncontact” muscle reading consists of having the spectator follow the performer about and having to "read" his hesitation patterns.

The art is also referred to as "Contact Mind Reading", Hellströmism after Alex Hellström who made it popular early in the twentieth century and Cumberlandism, after the English performer Stuart Cumberland.


  • Contact Mind Reading Expanded by Dariel Fitzkee

Notable performers